Hopkins faculty to present at American Society for NanoMedicine meeting

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The American Society for NanoMedicine (ASNM) will hold its third annual meeting November 9 -11 at the Universities at Shady Grove Conference Center in Gaithersburg, Md. This year ASNM has worked closely with the Cancer Imaging Program, National Cancer Institute, and National Institutes of Health to create a conference with a special focus on nano-enabeled cancer diagnostics and therapies, and the synergy of the combination of nano-improved imaging modalities and targeted delivery.

The program also focuses on updates on the newest Food and Drug Administration, nanotoxicity, nanoparticle characterization, nanoinformatics, nano-ontology, results of the latest translational research and clinical trials in nanomedicine, and funding initiatives. This year’s keynote speaker is Roger Tsien, 2008 Nobel Prize Laureate. Numerous other speakers and breakout sessions are planned for the three day event. Two speakers affiliated with Johns Hopkins include Justin Hanes and Dmitri Artemov. Hanes is a professor of nanomedicine in the department of ophthalmology at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. Artemov is an associate professor of radiology/magnetic resonance imaging research, also at the School of Medicine.

The deadline for the poster abstracts is October 1. The top four posters submitted by young (pre and post doctoral) investigators will be selected to give a short 10-minute (eight slides) oral presentation on November 11.

ASNM describes itself as a “a non-profit, open, democratic and transparent professional society…focus(ing) on cutting-edge research in nanomedicine and moving towards realizing the potential of nanomedicine for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.” More information about the ASNM can be found on the Society’s official website.

 

 

Summer scholars celebrate first high school graduates

Charles Booth and his mentor Yulia Artemenko at the 2011 Boys Hope poster session. Photo: Mary Spiro

To encourage promising high school students to pursue careers in academia and research, Johns Hopkins Institute for NanoBioTechnology and the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine welcome scholars from Baltimore’s Boys Hope Girls Hope (BHGH) to work in university laboratories. From June through August each summer for the past three years, high school students have worked alongside scientists in Johns Hopkins University laboratories producing raw data that supports the research goals of their mentors.

This summer, the university welcomed four BHGH scholars and, at the conclusion of the session, the scholars presented their findings to faculty, students, staff, and members of their families during a poster session held, August 12. The program also celebrated its first two high school graduates.

Matthew Green-Hill has been in the BHGH/INBT program for three summers. He graduated this spring from Archbishop Curley High School and was accepted to The College of William and Mary where he plans to study political science. He worked in the lab of assistant professor Sean Taverna in the department of pharmacology and molecular sciences. Along with his mentor PhD student Tonya Gilbert, Green-Hill presented “Cloning Yng1 to Identify Novel Histone Modification Binding Motifs that may affect Gene Expression” at the poster session.

Dwayne Thomas II worked in the cell biology laboratory of associate professor Douglas Robinson. He and his mentor, PhD student Hoku West-Foyle, conducted research that was presented in the poster “Dictyostelium discoideum myosin-ll, a modular motor.” Thomas has participated in the summer research program for two summers. He graduated from Loyola Blakefield in May and will attend Loyola University Maryland in the fall as a biology/pre-med major.

Working in the biological chemistry laboratory of professor Craig Montell, Durrell Igwe was mentored by postdoctoral fellow Marquis Walker and presented the poster “Reduced Immune Response in Drosophila Lysosomal Storage Disease Model.” This is also Igwe’s second year in the program, and he will graduate from Archbishop Curley High School in the spring of 2012.

One of the newest BHGH scholars is Charles Booth, who worked with postdoctoral fellow Yulia Artemenko in the cell biology lab of professor Peter Devreotes. He presented the poster “Analysis of the Functional Redundancy Between Dictyostelium KrsB and Its Mammalian Homolog Mstl.” Booth attends Calvert Hall and will be a junior this fall.

The BHGH program is geared toward students with academic potential but who lack the resources or stability to achieve their full potential. Some of those who have participated in the program may have at one time missed weeks of school in the past. Others have even been homeless. Students voluntarily apply to the nonprofit program to access services such as a stable home, tutoring, and counseling. Scholars have the opportunity to live together in an adult-supervised house in Baltimore and attend local private schools. Both boys and girls participate in the program and next year, Robinson said he hopes Hopkins will attract some of the young women interested in science and medicine to work in sponsored laboratories.

Additional photos on our Facebook Page.

Boys Hope Girls Hope Baltimore

Story by Mary Spiro

 

 

 

 

 

Hopkins Imaging Initiative to host first annual conference

The Johns Hopkins University Imaging Initiative will host the first annual Imaging Conference, October 6, 2011 at the Turner Auditorium on the medical campus. The conference features afternoon lectures from various Hopkins faculty followed by a research poster session and happy hour. Anyone interested in imaging is welcome to attend.

Speakers include Elliot McVeigh, director of the Department of Biomedical Engineering; Elliot Fishman, MD, director of diagnostic imaging at body CT at Johns Hopkins Hospital; Jerry Prince, the William B. Kouwenhoven Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the Whiting School of Engineering; Xingde Li, associate professor of biomedical engineering and head of the Laboratory of Biophotonics Imaging and Therapy at the Whiting School; Peter van Zijl, professor of radiology at the school of medicine and director of the F.M. Kirby Research Center for Functional Brain Imaging; and several others to be announced.

Abstracts will be accepted until Sept 6 and conference registration will be accepted until October 1. For complete information about this event and to register, go to http://imaging.jhu.edu/conferences/imaging-conference-2011

 

 

 

 

‘Just add water’ to activate freeze-dried brain cancer fighting nanoparticles

A fluorescence micrograph showing brain cancer cells producing a green fluorescent protein. DNA encoded to produce the protein was delivered to the cancer cells by new freeze-dried nanoparticles produced by Johns Hopkins biomedical engineers. Image: Stephany Tzeng/JHU

Biomedical engineers and clinicians at Johns Hopkins University have developed freeze-dried nanoparticles made of a shelf-stable polymer that only need the addition of water to activate their cancer-fighting gene therapy capabilities.

Principal investigator Jordan Green, assistant professor in the department of Biomedical Engineering at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, led the team that fabricated the polymer-based particles measuring 80 to 150 nanometers in diameter. Each particle, which is about the size of a virus, has the ability to carry a genetic cocktail designed to produce brain cancer cell-destroying molecules. After manufacture, the nanoparticles can be stored for up to 90 days before use. In principle, cancer therapies based on this technology could lead to a convenient commercial product that clinicians simply activate with water before injection into brain cancer tumor sites.

Because this method avoids the common, unpleasant side effects of traditional chemotherapy, “nanoparticle-based gene therapy has the potential to be both safer and more effective than conventional chemical therapies for the treatment of cancer,” Green said. But, he added current gene therapy nanoparticle preparations are just not practical for clinical use.

“A challenge in the field is that most non-viral gene therapy methods have very low efficacy. Another challenge with biodegradable nanoparticles, like the ones used here is that particle preparation typically takes multiple time-sensitive steps.” Green said. “Delay with formulation results in polymer degradation, and there can be variability between batches. Although this is a simple procedure for lab experiments, a clinician who wishes to use these particles during neurosurgery will face factors that would make the results unpredictable.”

In contrast, the nanoparticles developed by the Green lab are a freeze-dried, or “lyophilized,” formulation. “A clinician would simply add water, and it is ready to inject,” Green said. Green thinks this freeze-dried gene-delivery nanoparticle could be easily manufactured on a large scale.

Co-investigator Alfredo Quinones-Hinojosa, a Johns Hopkins Hospital clinician-scientist and associate professor in the departments of Neurosurgery and Oncology at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, said he could imagine particles based on this technology being used in conjunction with, and even instead of, brain surgery. “I envision that one day, as we understand the etiology and progression of brain cancer, we will be able to use these nanoparticles even before doing surgery,” Quinones said. “How nice would that be? Imagine avoiding brain surgery all together!”

Currently, patients with glioblastoma, or brain cancer, only have a median survival of about 14 months, Green said. “Methods other than the traditional chemotherapy drugs and radiation—or in combination with them—may improve prognosis,” he said.

Gene therapy approaches could also be personalized, Green said. “Because gene therapy can take advantage of many naturally-existing pathways and can be targeted to the cancer type of choice through nanoparticle design and transcriptional control, several levels of treatment specificity could be provided,” Green said.

The nanoparticles self-assemble from a polymer structural unit, so fabrication is fairly simple, said Green. Finding the right polymer to use, however, proved to be a challenge. Lead author Stephany Tzeng, a PhD student in biomedical engineering in Green’s lab screened an assortment of formulations from a “polymer library” before hitting on a winning combination.

“One challenge with a polymer library approach is that there are many polymers to be synthesized and nanoparticle formulations to be tested. Another challenge is designing the experiments to find out why the lead formulation works so well compared to other similar polymers and to commercially available reagents,” Green said.

Tzeng settled on a particular formulation of poly(beta-amino ester)s specifically attracted to glioblastoma (GB) cells and to brain tumor stem cells (BTSC), the cells responsible for tumor growth and spread. “Poly(beta-amino ester) nanoparticles are generally able to transfect many types of cells, but some are more specific to GBs and BTSCs,” Tzeng said.

The nanoparticles work like a virus, co-opting the cell’s own protein-making machinery, but in this case, to produce a reporter gene (used to delineate a tumor’s location) or new cancer fighting molecule. “It is possible that glioblastoma-derived cells, especially brain tumor stem cells, are more susceptible to our gene delivery approach because they divide much faster,” Tzeng added.

Not only are the particles convenient to use, the team discovered that dividing cells continued to make the new protein for as long as six weeks after application. “The gene expression peaked within a few days, which would correspond to a large initial dose of a therapeutic protein,” said Green. “The fact that gene expression can continue at a low level for a long time following injection could potentially cause a sustained, local delivery of the therapeutic protein without requiring subsequent injection or administration. The cells themselves would act as a ‘factory’ for the drug.”

Once the nanoparticles release their DNA cargo, Tzeng said the polymer quickly degrades in water, usually within days. “From there, we believe the degradation products are processed and excreted with other cellular waste products,” Tzeng said.

Members of the Green Lab are now working on identifying the intracellular mechanism responsible for facilitating cell-specific delivery. “We also plan to build additional levels of targeting into this system to make it even more specific. This includes modifying the nanoparticles with ligands to specifically bind to glioblastoma cells, making the DNA cargo able to be expressed only in GB cells, and using a DNA sequence whose product is only effective in GB cells.”

So far, the team has only successfully transfected brain tumor stem cells using these nanoparticles in a plastic dish. The next step is to test the particle in animal models.

“We hope to begin tests in vivo in the near future by implanting brain tumor stem cells into a mouse and injecting particles. We also hope to begin using functional genes that would kill cancer cells in addition to the fluorescent proteins that serve only as a marker,” Tzeng said.

Other authors who contributed to this work are Hugo Guerrero-Cázares, postdoctoral fellow in Neurosurgery and Oncology, and Joel Sunshine, an M.D.-Ph.D. candidate, and Elliott Martinez, an undergraduate leadership alliance summer student, both from Biomedical Engineering. Funding for this work came from the National Institutes of Health, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and a pilot-grant from Johns Hopkins Institute for NanoBioTechnology (INBT). Green is an affiliated faculty member of INBT. The research will be published in Issue #23 (August 2011) of the journal Biomaterials and is currently available online.

Freeze-dried gene therapy system avoids virus, complications

Story by Mary Spiro

 

Mini symposium highlights Johns Hopkins student work in cancer nanotechnology

Maureen Wanjara and Laura Dickinson, Johns Hopkins INBT predoctoral students from Sharon Gerecht’s lab (Photo: Marty Katz)

Johns Hopkins Institute for NanoBioTechnology will host a half-day mini-symposium on Wednesday, March 23 to showcase current research from students affiliated with its Engineering in Oncology Center and Center of Cancer Nanotechnology Excellence. Talks begin at 9 a.m. in Hackerman Hall Auditorium (Room B17) and will conclude by noon.

Students speaking include from the Whiting School of Engineering, predoctoral fellows in Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Stephanie Fraley, Laura Dickinson, and Craig Schneider; and postdoctoral fellows Christopher Hale, Jaeho Park, and Eric Balzer. Speaking from Biomedical Engineering will be predoctoral fellow Yi Zhang and undergradute Kelvin Liu; and in Mechanical Engineering postdoctoral fellow Sam Walcott. Also giving presentations are predoctoral fellow Dipankar Pramanik in Pathology at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine and John Fini, director of intellectual property for the Homewood campus schools.

Johns Hopkins Engineering in Oncology Center, a Physical Sciences-Oncology Center (PS-OC) funded by a grant from the National Cancer Institute, aims to unravel the physical underpinnings involved in the growth and spread of cancer. Johns Hopkins Center of Cancer Nanotechnology Excellence, also funded by a grant from the NCI, aims to use a multidisciplinary approach to develop nanotechnology-based tools and strategies for comprehensive cancer diagnosis and therapy and to translate those tools to the marketplace.

There is no need to RSVP for the mini-symposium. All Johns Hopkins students, faculty and staff are welcome to attend.

John Hopkins Institute for NanoBioTechnology

Engineering in Oncology Center

Center of Cancer Nanotechnology Excellence

Former nanobio summer intern featured in med school newsletter

Obafemi Ifelowo (Photo:MSpiro)

One of Johns Hopkins Institute for NanoBioTechnology’s 2010 summer research interns –Obafemi Ifelowo, a senior molecular biology, biochemistry and bioinformatics major at Towson University– was featured in a recent issue of the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine Science Newsletter. Ifelowo worked in the biomedical engineering laboratory of affiliated faculty member Jordan Green. Read more.

INBT’s summer nanobio internship is a Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program funded by the National Science Foundation. The Institute supported 16 students during the summer of 2010 for 10 weeks of research in laboratories across The Johns Hopkins University campuses.  Learn more about INBT’s summer nanobio REU program  here.

INBT welcomes 16 summer nanobio research interns

For 10 weeks this summer, 16 students from universities across the country will join the highly competitive Johns Hopkins Institute for Nanobiotechnology (INBT) Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU). The internship is funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and is supported and administered by INBT.

This is the third year of INBT’s REU program, and this group represents the institute’s largest group. Students are being mentored by faculty, graduate students and postdoctoral fellows in INBT affiliated laboratories across Hopkins. At the end of the 10-week research program, they will present their findings at a university-wide collaborative research poster session held with other summer interns from across several divisions.

In November 2009, NSF reported that over the last decade 10 times more white students will have earned doctoral degrees in science and engineering disciplines than minority students. Acknowledging this fact yet resolving not to accept it as status quo, INBT has employed aggressive measures to increase the number of individuals from underrepresented groups who apply to its educational programs.

“The nanobiotechnology REU has been one of the most successful and popular programs for INBT,” says Ashanti Edwards, senior education program coordinator for the institute. “The program has consistently attracted the best and the brightest students interested in research from top universities across the nation. The REU program was launched as a conduit to attract highly talented and motivated research students to pursue academic careers in research, particularly women and minority scholars. The program is highly competitive. For summer 2010, the number of applicants for the 10 slots in the program rose to nearly 500, twice what it had been the year before.”

Johns Hopkins Institute for NanoBioTechnology Summer REU Students. (Photos by Mary Spiro)

INBT’s summer 2010 REU students include pictured from top to bottom, from left to right:

Top row

Joshua Austin, computer science and math major from UMBC, is working with Jeff Gray, associate professor of chemical and biomolecular engineering, Whiting School of Engineering.

Mary Bedard, biochemistry and Spanish major from Elon University, is working with J.D. Tovar, assistant professor of chemistry, Krieger School of Arts and Sciences.

Kameron Black, neuroscience major from the University of California, Riverside, is working in the lab of Ted Dawson, professor of neuroscience, School of Medicine

Obafemi Ifelowo, who majors in molecular biology, biochemistry and bioinformatics at Towson University, is working with Jordan Green, assistant professor of biomedical engineering, School of Medicine.

Second row

Alfred Irungu, mechanical engineering major at UMBC, is working with German Drazer, assistant professor of chemical and biomolecular engineering, Whiting School of Engineering.

Ceslee Montgomery, human biology major from Stanford University, is working in the lab of Doug Robinson, associate professor of cell biology, School of Medicine.

Makeda Moore, biology major from Alabama A & M University, is working with Sharon Gerecht, assistant professor of chemical and biomolecular Engineering, Whiting School of Engineering.

Christopher Ojeda, biomedical engineering major from New Jersey Institute of Technology, is working in the lab of Michael Yu, assistant professor of Materials Science and Engineering, Whiting School of Engineering.

Third row

Katrin Passlack, mechanical engineering and kinesiology major at the University of Oklahoma, is working with Jeff Wang, associate professor of mechanical engineering, Whiting School of Engineering.

Roberto Rivera, chemical engineering major from the University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, is working in the lab of Nina Markovic, associate professor of physics, Krieger School of Arts and Sciences.

D. Kyle Robinson, bioengineering major from Oregon State University, is working in the lab of Denis Wirtz, professor of chemical and biomolecular engineering, Whiting School of Engineering. In addition, Kyle is the first REU intern for Johns Hopkins new Engineering in Oncology Center, of which Wirtz is director.

Russell Salamo, biology major from the University of Arkansas, is working with Kalina Hristova, associate professor of materials science and engineering, Whiting School of Engineering.

Bottom row

Quinton Smith, major in chemical engineering with a bioengineering concentration from the University of New Mexico, is working with Sharon Gerecht, assistant professor of chemical and biomolecular engineering, Whiting School of Engineering.

David To, chemistry major from Wittenberg University, is working with assistant professor Hai-Quan Mao in the department of materials science and engineering, Whiting School of Engineering.

Alan Winter, biology systems engineering major from Kansas State University, is working with Professor Peter Searson in the department of materials science and engineering, Whiting School of Engineering. Searson is the director of INBT.

Mary Zuniga, biology major a Northern Arizona University, is working in the lab of David Gracias, associate professor of chemical and biomolecular engineering, Whiting School of Engineering.

Related Links:

Johns Hopkins NanoBio Research Experience for Undergraduates

EOC leader Gregg Semenza wins Canada Gairdner Award

Gregg Semenza

Gregg Semenza, associate director of Johns Hopkins Engineering in Oncology Center (EOC), has been named among seven 2010 winners of Canada’s international prize for medical research–the Canada Gairdner Award. The award is among the most prestigious for medical research and comes with a $100,000 cash prize.

The Canada Gairdner Award recognized Semenza for his work on how cells respond to oxygen availability in the body. He was the first to identify and describe hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), which switches genes on or off in response to oxygen levels.

Semenza leads a research project related to this topic for EOC with Sharon Gerecht, an assistant professor of chemical and biomolecular engineering. Their work focuses on analyzing the makeup and physical properties of the extracellular matrix, the three-dimensional scaffold in which cells live.

“Normal cells live in a flexible scaffold, but cancer cells create a rigid scaffold that they climb through to invade normal tissue,” Semenza said. “We will study how this change occurs and how it is affected by the amount of oxygen to which cancer cells are exposed. Our studies have shown that cancer cells are deprived of oxygen, which incites them to more aggressively invade the surrounding normal tissues where oxygen is more plentiful. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 controls the responses of cancer cells to low oxygen, and we have recently identified drugs that block the action of HIF-1 and inhibit tumor growth in experimental cancer models.”

Semenza is the C. Michael Armstrong Professor in Medicine and founding director of the Vascular Biology program at  Johns Hopkins Institute for Cell Engineering at the School of Medicine. He also is a member of the McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine, is an affiliated faculty member of Johns Hopkins Institute for NanoBioTechnology, and has ties to the Department of Biological Chemistry and the Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, both at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine.

The Johns Hopkins Engineering in Oncology Center, launched October 2009, is one of 12 funded by the National Cancer Institute to bring a new cadre of theoretical physicists, mathematicians, chemists and engineers to the study of cancer. During the five-year initiative, the NCI’s Physical Sciences-Oncology Centers (PS-OC) will take new, nontraditional approaches to cancer research by studying the physical laws and principles of cancer; evolution and evolutionary theory of cancer; information coding, decoding, transfer and translation in cancer; and ways to deconvolute cancer’s complexity.

Read more about Gregg Semenza winning the Canada Gairdner Award in the Johns Hopkins Gazette story by Audrey Huang here.

Johns Hopkins Engineering in Oncology Center

APL scientist to explain self-assembled artificial cilia from cobalt nanoparticles

Jason Benkoski

Jason Benkoski

Can nanoparticles be used to engineer structures that could be as flexible and useful as the cilia that help bacteria move around?

Jason Benkoski, a senior scientist at Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory and an affiliated faculty member of Johns Hopkins Institute for NanoBioTechnology, will discuss his current research in this endeavor on March 1  at 1:30 p.m. in the Rome Room, Clark 110 at the Johns Hopkins University Homewood campus. Hosted by the Department of Biomedical Engineering, this talk also will be teleconferenced to the Talbot Library in Traylor 709 at the School of Medicine.

Abstract: Taking inspiration from eukaryotic cilia, we report a method for growing dense arrays of magnetically actuated microscopic filaments. Fabricated from the bottom-up assembly of polymer-coated cobalt nanoparticles, each segmented filament measures approximately 5–15 microns in length and 23.5 nanometers in diameter, which was commensurate with the width of a single nanoparticle. Boasting the flexibility of biological cilia, we envision applications for this technology that include micropumps, micro-flow sensors, microphones with hardware-based voice detection, surfaces with enhanced thermal transfer, switchable, tunable filters, and microscopic locomotion.

Additional Links:

Jason Benkoski’s INBT profile

Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Lab