High schoolers to show off their summer research

Stephanie Keyaka (left) working with Jincy Abraham (Notre Dame) in the Craig Montell Lab. Photo by Mary Spiro.

The Summer Academic Research Experience (SARE) pairs specially selected teens who come from academically disadvantaged homes with university mentors who guide them through a mini research project. The students gain valuable work skills, learn about scientific careers, get tutoring help, practice their writing, gather data for their projects and earn some cash for the future. The group will present their research findings during a poster session at the Johns Hopkins University medical campus on August 20 in the Bodian Room (1830 Building Rm 2-200) from 3:30 to 4:30 p.m.

“This is way better than flipping burgers,” laughed Stephanie Keyaka, as she prepared an image of a Western Blot performed on  Drosophila (fly) eye genes.

Keyaka is one of three high school students who worked in a biological chemistry laboratory  this summer with financial support from Johns Hopkins University Institute for NanoBioTechnology and School of Medicine.

Christopher Miller (right) with his mentor Hoku West-Foyle. Photo by Mary Spiro.

Keyaka, a rising 10th grader from The SEED School of Maryland, will be joined at the poster session by Christopher Miller, also a rising 10th grader from The SEED School of Maryland and Shaolin Holloman, a rising 11th grader at Baltimore Polytechnic Institute who is part of the Boys Hope Girls Hope of Baltimore.

The SEED School of Maryland is a public boarding school that accepts qualified children from across the state entering the 6th grade.  Boys Hope Girls Hope is a privately funded nonprofit that offers students the chance to attend academically challenging public or private schools and the opportunity to live in the Boys Hope or Girls Hope home.

Miller studied the protein myosin in the cell biology laboratory of  associate professor Douglas Robinson. Holloman worked in the cell biology lab of professor Carolyn Machamer on a project that sought to understand why the SARS coronavirus localized in the Golgi apparatus of the cell. Keyaka studied rhodopsin in the eyes of flies the lab of professor Craig Montell.

Shaolin Holloman (left) with professor Carolyn Machamer. Photo by Mary Spiro.

Help celebrate the accomplishments of our summer high school students who participated in the Summer Academic Research Experience. This event is free and open to the entire Hopkins  community. Light refreshments will be served. Students, faculty and mentors will available to discus the projects.

 

 

 

Meet INBT’s summer interns, already digging into their research

Research does not take a holiday during the summer at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Md. In fact, it ramps up with the addition of many new faces from across the country.

The Johns Hopkins Institute for NanoBioTechnology summer research interns have arrived and are already busy at work in various laboratories. This year’s group is the largest the institute has ever hosted, with 17 undergraduates from universities nationwide.

Of the total, three students are affiliated with the Center of Cancer Nanotechnology Excellence and four are affiliated with the Physical Sciences-Oncology Center. The remaining 10 are part of the National Science Foundation Research Experience for Undergraduates program. All are hosted through INBT, which serves as a hub for their academic and social activities.

INBT summer interns conduct 10 weeks of research in a laboratory either on the Homewood or the medical campus of the University. At the end of that time, students have learned how to work in a multidisciplinary team and how to manage a short term research project.  They also discover if research is a pathway they want to pursue after earning their bachelor’s degrees.

In August, interns from many of the science, medicine, engineering and public health summer programs will gather for a  poster session to be held on August 2 at 3 p.m. in Turner Concourse. The poster session will allow students to show off the results of their their work.

This year’s INBT/PS-OC/CCNE interns include:

At the Whiting School of Engineering…

Amani Alkayyali from Wayne State University is an REU student in the laboratory of Honggang Cui assistant professor in the Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering. Also in the Cui lab are CCNE intern Matthew Fong from the University of California, Berkeley and Michelle LaComb, an REU student from Rice University.

Sharon Gerecht, assistant professor in the Department of Chemical and Biomolecular engineering, is hosting three interns. Josh Porterfield of Cornell University and Carolyn Zhang from the University of California, San Diego are both PS-OC interns, and Bria Macklin of Howard University is an REU intern.

Jacqueline Carozza of Cornell University is a PS-OC student working in the lab of Denis Wirtz, professor in the Department Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering. Cassandra Loren from Oregon State University is a PS-OC intern also working in the Wirtz lab.

Eric Do from the University of Washington is an REU working in the lab of assistant professor Margarita Herrara-Alonso in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering.

Olivia Hentz from Cornell is an REU student working in the lab of Jonah Erlebacher, professor in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering.

Justin Samorajski from the University of Dallas is a returning summer intern, once again working in the materials science and engineering lab of professor Peter Searson as part of the CCNE.

At the School of Medicine…

Lauren Lee of Cornell University is an REU working in the lab of biomedical engineering lab of associate professor Hai-Quan Mao.

Albert Lu from the University of California Berkeley is a CCNE intern working in the biomedical engineering lab of associate professor Jeff Wang.

Bianca Lascano from Norfolk State University is an REU in assistant professor Jordan Green’s biomedical engineering lab.

Charlie Nusbaum of the Richard Stockton College is an REU intern in the radiation oncology lab of assistant professor Robert Ivkov.

At the Krieger School of Arts and Sciences…

Anthony Loder of Rowan University is an REU working in the biology lab of assistant professor Xin Chen.

Daniel McClelland is also REU from Bethany College works in the chemistry laboratory of professor Howard Fairbrother.

 

 

Baby crystal discovery big step for nanoscience

How small can a chemical compound be and still retain the properties of that same compound in bulk? With computer models and laboratory experiments, researchers at Johns Hopkins University, collaborating with those at McNeese State University in Lake Charles, LA, and the University of Konstanz in Germany, have determined the smallest crystal configuration, or as they call it, a “baby crystal,” of lead sulfide.

Predicted dimensions of nano-blocks achieved by growing individual (PbS)32 baby crystals. STM images confirmed these dimensions. (Illustration courtesy Bowen Lab)

The team first determined the structure theoretically with computer modeling. They then proved their model experimentally in the laboratory by carefully depositing clusters of (PbS)32 onto a graphite surface, where the clusters could migrate together into larger nanoscale units.

“By using scanning tunneling microscope (STM) images to measure the dimensions of the resultant lead sulfide nano-blocks, we confirmed that (PbS)32 baby crystals had indeed stacked together as predicted by theory,” said Kit Bowen Jr., the E. Emmet Reid Professor in the Department of Chemistry at Johns Hopkins. Bowen worked on the project with, Howard Fairbrother, also a professor of chemistry. Both are affiliated faculty members of the Institute for NanoBioTechnology.

Bowen explained that the baby crystal needed just 32 units of lead sulfide to “exhibit the same structural coordination properties” of the same material at macroscale. Nanoblocks this small would have photovoltaic (solar power) applications.

“Determining the size of nano and sub-nano scale assemblies of atoms or molecules at which they first take-on recognizable properties of the same substance in the macroscopic world is an important goal in nanoscience,” Bowen said.

Their research can be found in the Journal of Chemical Physics and The Virtual Journal of Nanoscale Science & Technology. A Department of Energy grant funded this research.

 The Virtual Journal of Science & Technology

Bowen Lab

 

Hopkins’ Herrera-Alonso earns NSF CAREER award

Margarita Herrera-Alonso

Margarita Herrera-Alonso, assistant professor in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering, has received the National Science Foundation CAREER Award. Herrera’s CAREER funding will support her goal of better understanding the structure and property relationships of new polymers inspired by nature.

Her research will enable these building blocks to be used in the context of other bio-inspired materials applications, such as drug carrier design. The CAREER Award recognizes the highest levels of excellence and promise in early-career scholars and teachers.

Herrera joined the Johns Hopkins University faculty in early 2010. She is an affiliated faculty member of Johns Hopkins Institute for NanoBioTechnology. She earned her PhD in polymer science and engineering from the University of Massachusetts at Amherst. Find out more about the projects the Herrera Group is working on at this website.

 

Engineers put a new ‘twist’ on lab-on-a-chip

Close-up of a cylindrically-shaped microfluidic device with two fluorescent solutions flowing through. Reproduced with permission from Nature Communications.

A leaf works something like a miniature laboratory. While the pores on the leaf surface allow it to channel nutrients in and waste products away from a plant, part of a leaf’s function also lies in its ability to curl and twist. Engineers use polymers to create their own mini-labs, devices called “labs-on-a-chip,” which have numerous applications in science, engineering and medicine. The typical flat, lab on a chip, or microfluidic device, resembles an etched microscopy cover slip with channels and grooves.

But what if you could get that flat lab-on-a-chip to self-assemble into a curve, mimicking the curl, twist or spiral of a leaf? Mustapha Jamal, a PhD student and IGERT fellow from Johns Hopkins Institute for NanoBioTechnology, has created a way to make that so.

Jamal is the lead author on “Differentially photo-crosslinked polymers enable self-assembling microfluidics,” published November 8, 2011 in Nature Communications. Along with principle investigator David Gracias, associate professor of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering in the Whiting School of Engineering, and fellow graduate student Aasiyeh Zarafshar, Jamal has developed, for the first time, a method for creating three-dimensional lab-on-a-chip devices that can curl and twist.

The process involves shining ultraviolet (UV) light on a film of a substance called SU-8. Film areas closer to the light source become more heavily crosslinked than layers beneath, which on solvent conditioning creates a stress gradient.

Immersing the film in water causes the film to curl. Immersion in organic solvents like acetone causes the film to flatten. The curling and flattening can be reversed. The result, Jamal said, is the “self-assembly of intricate 3D devices that contain microfluidic channels.” This simple method, he added, can “program 2D polymeric (SU-8) films such that they spontaneously and reversibly curve into intricate 3D geometries including cylinders, cubes and corrugated sheets.”

Members of the Gracias lab have previously created curving and folding polymeric films consisting of two different materials. This new method achieves a stress gradient along the thickness of a single substance. “This provides considerable flexibility in the type and extent of curvature that can be created by varying the intensity and direction of exposure to UV light,” Gracias said.

Gracias explained that the method works with current protocols and materials for fabricating flat microfluidic devices. For example, one can design a 2D film with one type of lab-on-a-chip network, and then use their method to shape it into another geometry, also with microfluidic properties.

Fluorescent image of curved, self-assembled microfluidic device. Reproduced with permission from Nature Communications.

“Since our approach is compatible with planar lithography methods, we can also incorporate optical elements such as split ring resonators that have unique optical features. Alternatively, flexible electronic circuits could be incorporated and channels could be used to transport cooling fluids” Gracias said.

Tissue engineering is among the many important applications for 3D microfluidic devices, Gracias said. “Since many hydrogels can be photopolymerized, we can use the methodology of differential cross-linking to create stress gradients in these materials,” Gracias explained. “We plan to create biodegradable, vascularized tissue scaffolds using this approach.”

Link to the journal article here.

Story by Mary Spiro

 

 

Panel discussion tackles the question: Is undergraduate research for you?

Undergraduates presenting at summer research symposium.

Are you an undergraduate  engineering student who wants to do research but just doesn’t know where to start?

The Johns Hopkins chapter of the Society of Women Engineers  will host a panel discussion Thursday, October 27 at 7 PM in room 132 of Gilman Hall  on the Homewood campus.  The panel discussion is designed to answer your questions about getting started in research at Johns Hopkins University.   Listen to a panel of undergraduate research students in engineering discuss what it’s like to work in an engineering lab.

Undergraduate research experience is extremely important if you want to apply for internships, jobs, scholarships and postgraduate work. Conducting research while you’re an undergraduate also helps put this ideas that you’ve learned in class into action for larger goal. Some undergraduate researchers  even have their work published in peer-reviewed journals.

Johns Hopkins Institute for NanoBiotechnology offers a summer research experience for undergraduates in nano bio.   A criteria for applying to an REU  program is that you have had prior research experience.  Don’t miss your opportunity to learn about this exciting component of your undergraduate academic career.

For more information about the Society of Women Engineers go to http://www.jhu.edu/swe/index.html

For details about  about Johns Hopkins Institute for Nano Biotechnology summer Research Experience for Undergraduates program, go to http://inbt.jhu.edu/education/undergraduate/reu/

Applications for the 2012 summer program will be accepted soon.

Hopkins faculty to present at American Society for NanoMedicine meeting

© Liudmila Gridina | Dreamstime.com

The American Society for NanoMedicine (ASNM) will hold its third annual meeting November 9 -11 at the Universities at Shady Grove Conference Center in Gaithersburg, Md. This year ASNM has worked closely with the Cancer Imaging Program, National Cancer Institute, and National Institutes of Health to create a conference with a special focus on nano-enabeled cancer diagnostics and therapies, and the synergy of the combination of nano-improved imaging modalities and targeted delivery.

The program also focuses on updates on the newest Food and Drug Administration, nanotoxicity, nanoparticle characterization, nanoinformatics, nano-ontology, results of the latest translational research and clinical trials in nanomedicine, and funding initiatives. This year’s keynote speaker is Roger Tsien, 2008 Nobel Prize Laureate. Numerous other speakers and breakout sessions are planned for the three day event. Two speakers affiliated with Johns Hopkins include Justin Hanes and Dmitri Artemov. Hanes is a professor of nanomedicine in the department of ophthalmology at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. Artemov is an associate professor of radiology/magnetic resonance imaging research, also at the School of Medicine.

The deadline for the poster abstracts is October 1. The top four posters submitted by young (pre and post doctoral) investigators will be selected to give a short 10-minute (eight slides) oral presentation on November 11.

ASNM describes itself as a “a non-profit, open, democratic and transparent professional society…focus(ing) on cutting-edge research in nanomedicine and moving towards realizing the potential of nanomedicine for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.” More information about the ASNM can be found on the Society’s official website.

 

 

Hopkins Imaging Initiative to host first annual conference

The Johns Hopkins University Imaging Initiative will host the first annual Imaging Conference, October 6, 2011 at the Turner Auditorium on the medical campus. The conference features afternoon lectures from various Hopkins faculty followed by a research poster session and happy hour. Anyone interested in imaging is welcome to attend.

Speakers include Elliot McVeigh, director of the Department of Biomedical Engineering; Elliot Fishman, MD, director of diagnostic imaging at body CT at Johns Hopkins Hospital; Jerry Prince, the William B. Kouwenhoven Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the Whiting School of Engineering; Xingde Li, associate professor of biomedical engineering and head of the Laboratory of Biophotonics Imaging and Therapy at the Whiting School; Peter van Zijl, professor of radiology at the school of medicine and director of the F.M. Kirby Research Center for Functional Brain Imaging; and several others to be announced.

Abstracts will be accepted until Sept 6 and conference registration will be accepted until October 1. For complete information about this event and to register, go to http://imaging.jhu.edu/conferences/imaging-conference-2011

 

 

 

 

‘Just add water’ to activate freeze-dried brain cancer fighting nanoparticles

A fluorescence micrograph showing brain cancer cells producing a green fluorescent protein. DNA encoded to produce the protein was delivered to the cancer cells by new freeze-dried nanoparticles produced by Johns Hopkins biomedical engineers. Image: Stephany Tzeng/JHU

Biomedical engineers and clinicians at Johns Hopkins University have developed freeze-dried nanoparticles made of a shelf-stable polymer that only need the addition of water to activate their cancer-fighting gene therapy capabilities.

Principal investigator Jordan Green, assistant professor in the department of Biomedical Engineering at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, led the team that fabricated the polymer-based particles measuring 80 to 150 nanometers in diameter. Each particle, which is about the size of a virus, has the ability to carry a genetic cocktail designed to produce brain cancer cell-destroying molecules. After manufacture, the nanoparticles can be stored for up to 90 days before use. In principle, cancer therapies based on this technology could lead to a convenient commercial product that clinicians simply activate with water before injection into brain cancer tumor sites.

Because this method avoids the common, unpleasant side effects of traditional chemotherapy, “nanoparticle-based gene therapy has the potential to be both safer and more effective than conventional chemical therapies for the treatment of cancer,” Green said. But, he added current gene therapy nanoparticle preparations are just not practical for clinical use.

“A challenge in the field is that most non-viral gene therapy methods have very low efficacy. Another challenge with biodegradable nanoparticles, like the ones used here is that particle preparation typically takes multiple time-sensitive steps.” Green said. “Delay with formulation results in polymer degradation, and there can be variability between batches. Although this is a simple procedure for lab experiments, a clinician who wishes to use these particles during neurosurgery will face factors that would make the results unpredictable.”

In contrast, the nanoparticles developed by the Green lab are a freeze-dried, or “lyophilized,” formulation. “A clinician would simply add water, and it is ready to inject,” Green said. Green thinks this freeze-dried gene-delivery nanoparticle could be easily manufactured on a large scale.

Co-investigator Alfredo Quinones-Hinojosa, a Johns Hopkins Hospital clinician-scientist and associate professor in the departments of Neurosurgery and Oncology at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, said he could imagine particles based on this technology being used in conjunction with, and even instead of, brain surgery. “I envision that one day, as we understand the etiology and progression of brain cancer, we will be able to use these nanoparticles even before doing surgery,” Quinones said. “How nice would that be? Imagine avoiding brain surgery all together!”

Currently, patients with glioblastoma, or brain cancer, only have a median survival of about 14 months, Green said. “Methods other than the traditional chemotherapy drugs and radiation—or in combination with them—may improve prognosis,” he said.

Gene therapy approaches could also be personalized, Green said. “Because gene therapy can take advantage of many naturally-existing pathways and can be targeted to the cancer type of choice through nanoparticle design and transcriptional control, several levels of treatment specificity could be provided,” Green said.

The nanoparticles self-assemble from a polymer structural unit, so fabrication is fairly simple, said Green. Finding the right polymer to use, however, proved to be a challenge. Lead author Stephany Tzeng, a PhD student in biomedical engineering in Green’s lab screened an assortment of formulations from a “polymer library” before hitting on a winning combination.

“One challenge with a polymer library approach is that there are many polymers to be synthesized and nanoparticle formulations to be tested. Another challenge is designing the experiments to find out why the lead formulation works so well compared to other similar polymers and to commercially available reagents,” Green said.

Tzeng settled on a particular formulation of poly(beta-amino ester)s specifically attracted to glioblastoma (GB) cells and to brain tumor stem cells (BTSC), the cells responsible for tumor growth and spread. “Poly(beta-amino ester) nanoparticles are generally able to transfect many types of cells, but some are more specific to GBs and BTSCs,” Tzeng said.

The nanoparticles work like a virus, co-opting the cell’s own protein-making machinery, but in this case, to produce a reporter gene (used to delineate a tumor’s location) or new cancer fighting molecule. “It is possible that glioblastoma-derived cells, especially brain tumor stem cells, are more susceptible to our gene delivery approach because they divide much faster,” Tzeng added.

Not only are the particles convenient to use, the team discovered that dividing cells continued to make the new protein for as long as six weeks after application. “The gene expression peaked within a few days, which would correspond to a large initial dose of a therapeutic protein,” said Green. “The fact that gene expression can continue at a low level for a long time following injection could potentially cause a sustained, local delivery of the therapeutic protein without requiring subsequent injection or administration. The cells themselves would act as a ‘factory’ for the drug.”

Once the nanoparticles release their DNA cargo, Tzeng said the polymer quickly degrades in water, usually within days. “From there, we believe the degradation products are processed and excreted with other cellular waste products,” Tzeng said.

Members of the Green Lab are now working on identifying the intracellular mechanism responsible for facilitating cell-specific delivery. “We also plan to build additional levels of targeting into this system to make it even more specific. This includes modifying the nanoparticles with ligands to specifically bind to glioblastoma cells, making the DNA cargo able to be expressed only in GB cells, and using a DNA sequence whose product is only effective in GB cells.”

So far, the team has only successfully transfected brain tumor stem cells using these nanoparticles in a plastic dish. The next step is to test the particle in animal models.

“We hope to begin tests in vivo in the near future by implanting brain tumor stem cells into a mouse and injecting particles. We also hope to begin using functional genes that would kill cancer cells in addition to the fluorescent proteins that serve only as a marker,” Tzeng said.

Other authors who contributed to this work are Hugo Guerrero-Cázares, postdoctoral fellow in Neurosurgery and Oncology, and Joel Sunshine, an M.D.-Ph.D. candidate, and Elliott Martinez, an undergraduate leadership alliance summer student, both from Biomedical Engineering. Funding for this work came from the National Institutes of Health, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and a pilot-grant from Johns Hopkins Institute for NanoBioTechnology (INBT). Green is an affiliated faculty member of INBT. The research will be published in Issue #23 (August 2011) of the journal Biomaterials and is currently available online.

Freeze-dried gene therapy system avoids virus, complications

Story by Mary Spiro

 

Collagen video scores high in magazines reader’s choice vote

Screen capture from INBT’s video on collagen mimetic peptides.

The Scientist magazine has announced its annual Multimedia Awards—the Labbys—and Johns Hopkins Institute for NanoBioTechnology’s video on collagen mimetic peptides has been selected as a finalist. According to the voting, we are a strong second in the race. It appears voting is continuing well past the original June 30 deadline. So keep voting!

Help choose us as the top science video by going to this website (http://the-scientist.com/2011/06/15/2011-labby-video-finalists/#vote)  and selecting “Mimicking Collagen.” The video features Michael Yu, associate professor of materials science and engineering and some fantastic animations and illustration from INBT’s Animation studio. Animations in the video were created by Ella McCrea, a graduate from the Maryland Institute College of Art, and Nathan Weiss, a masters graduate from Johns Hopkins University.

Winners of the reader’s choice will be announced in the magazine and online in September. Top picks will also be chosen by The Scientist’s panel of judges, which includes the father of the infographic Nigel Holmes, Kirsten Sanford of the Science Channel (aka Dr. KiKi), Jeffrey Segall of the Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York City, and David Kirby of the University of Manchester.

You can only vote once, so share this link with your friends.