Stem cells possess the potential to become any type tissue. This quality makes them ideal tools for possible therapeutic applications to treat or even cure many kinds of human suffering. Sharon Gerecht, affiliated faculty member of Johns Hopkins Institute for NanoBioTechnology (INBT) and assistant professor of chemical and biomolecular engineering, is using nanoengineered surfaces adorned with chemical cues, among other methods, to direct stem cells to differentiate into blood vessels. She also serves as a faculty mentor to students in INBT’s graduate training programs, postdoctoral program in Nanotechnology for Cancer Medicine, and the International Research Experience for Students. Read a recent faculty profile published by the Johns Hopkins Office of News and Information here: http://www.jhu.edu/news_info/news/home09/feb09/gerecht.html
Ying-Ying Wang, a biomedical engineering doctoral student; and Samuel Lai, an assistant research professor of chemical and biomolecular engineering. Will Kirk/JHU
Johns Hopkins researchers affiliated with the Institute for NanoBioTechnology have discovered a way to chemically shrink the naturally occurring holes in the body’s protective mucus layer so that it will keep out more unwanted particles. Read more here. http://www.jhu.edu/news/home09/feb09/mesh.html
Garrett Jenkinson(left) and Teaching Assistant Terrence Dobrowsky during the 2009 Nanobio Boot Camp. Credit: Mary Spiro / JHU
Graduate student fellows affiliated with Johns Hopkins Institute for NanoBioTechnology (INBT) training programs hail from diverse academic backgrounds. Some are electrical or biomedical engineers, others are chemists and biologists. But all of them at some point during their academic careers at Hopkins are required to take the core course NanoBio Laboratory (EN 500.621). To make sure that everyone taking the course is familiar with state-of-the-art laboratory techniques, INBT students enlist in a weeklong “boot camp.“ The 2009 boot camp occurred during the third week of January during intersession. [Read more...]
Faculty Profile: Konstantinos Konstantopoulos
The surfaces of all cells, both normal ones and cancer causing, are coated with tiny sugar molecules that bind to compatible sites on blood vessel walls and allow the cell to travel around the body and into tissues. But what starts out as a friendly molecular “handshake“ for normal cells turns into a deadly embrace where tumor cells are involved. [Read more...]
David Gracias, assistant professor of chemical and biomolecular engineering and affiliated faculty member of Johns Hopkins Institute for NanoBioTechnology, lead a team of researchers that developed tiny microgrippers that can be controlled by harmless chemicals and magnets. This tiny tool, which closes around an object like a hand, could be used to conduct minimally invasive biopsies. Experiments using the device were reported in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Early Edition for the week of Jan. 12-16). Several news outlets, including the July 13, 2009 issue of The New York Times and ScienceDaily.com featured stories on the mircrogrippers, as well as videos that demonstrated how it works.
Here is a link to the story as it appeared on Headlines@Hopkins: http://www.jhu.edu/news_info/news/home09/jan09/gracias.html.
INBT Industrial Affiliate: Northrop Grumman
Launching the careers of its students and finding the best application for the innovations developed in its laboratories are two top priorities for John Hopkins Institute for NanoBioTechnology (INBT). Toward this end, INBT builds relationships with industry through its mutually beneficial Industrial Affiliates Program, which engages students in challenging research and provides a potential marketing pipeline for technologies created in INBT labs. The nation’s third largest defense contractor, Northrop Grumman, has been an INBT Industrial Affiliate since the Institute was founded in May 2006. [Read more...]
Sharon Gerecht (left) and students. Credit: JHU
The Baltimore Jewish Times recently featured a Q&A with Israeli native Sharon Gerecht, assistant professor of chemical and biomolecular engineering and affiliated faculty member of Johns Hopkins Institute for NanoBioTechnology. Gerecht uses nanotopographic surfaces to direct the differentiation of stem cells. An excerpt from the article follows:
What’s the focus of your research?
My focus is stem cells and regenerative medicine. The ultimate goal is developing therapeutics for blood vessel disorders. Blood vessels circulate blood to and from the heart and lungs. Vascular disorders are common, especially as people age, and in chronic diseases such as diabetes.
Have you had success?
We’ve had success in inducing the differentiation of stem cells to blood vessels. Now we are trying to mature these cells to function as a tissue.
In the lab, we use mostly a Petri dish. The body is more three dimensional. Different concerns include transport of oxygen to a tissue, gradients of growth factors, and the specific milieu the cells are grown in.
We have developed several biomaterials that encourage three-dimensional blood vessel growth. Currently, we are studying how stem cells respond to different properties of these biomaterialsâ€¦
The entire article, written by Barbara Pash, was published in the November 28, 2008 print edition of the Baltimore Jewish Times.
For more information on Sharon Gerecht’s research, visit her INBT affiliated faculty page at http://inbt.jhu.edu/facultyexpertise.php?id=personalresult&usr=220
Jeff Bulte. Credit: JHU
Jeff W.M. Bulte, professor of radiology, biomedical engineering, and chemical & biomolecular engineering at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, recently won the National Institutes of Health’s new EUREKA grant. (EUREKA stands for Exceptional, Unconventional Research Enabling Knowledge Acceleration.) Bulte was one of 38 U.S. scientists to earn the distinction. Bulte will receive $200,000 per year for four years from NIH and will direct the funds to develop a new technique called magnetic particle imaging (MPI) as a means of visualizing transplanted stem cells in the brains of animals with stroke. Bulte is an affiliated faculty member of the Johns Hopkins Institute for NanoBioTechnology and Director of the Cellular Imaging Section in the Johns Hopkins Institute for Cell Engineering. [Read more...]
Jacob Koskimaki. Credit: Mary Spiro/JHU
Blood flow gives life to both normal and cancerous tissues. Cutting off cancer cells from their blood supply through drugs that prevent blood vessel growth can control tumor growth. Jacob Koskimaki is a third year biomedical engineering graduate student with the NanoBio IGERT* at Johns Hopkins Institute for NanoBioTechnology (INBT). He uses bioinformatics techniques to search for proteins that are antiangiogenic—meaning that they inhibit blood vessel growth. Koskimaki works in the systems biology lab of Aleksander Popel, biomedical engineering professor at the School of Medicine and an INBT affiliated faculty member.
“These proteins have several therapeutic advantages in that they are naturally occurring in the body, so they have low toxicity and can be reproduced synthetically,“ Koskimaki says. He uses a systematic searching technique to data mine the human genome maintained by the National Center for Biotechnology Information called BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool). BLAST can compare the sequences of proteins known to halt the growth of blood vessels to the protein sequences of domains that are not yet known to be antiangiogenic. This method has helped discover new protein fragments with antiangiogenic properties. The resulting fragments are then experimentally applied to several disease models as novel treatments for lung and breast cancer. (This is a continuation of the research by a former PhD student in the Popel lab Emmanouil Karagiannis, now a postdoc at MIT).
“There has been a lot of interest in finding antiangiogenic compounds,“ Koskimaki says, “and a lot of money has been invested leading to several promising treatments.“ For example, he adds, the drug Avastin was the first FDA approved anti-angiogenic drug. When used in conjunction with chemotherapy, Avastin can extend a patient’s life by blocking angiogenic growth factors and halting tumor progression.
Koskimaki also collaborates with Zaver Bhujwalla, radiology professor at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. Bhujwalla develops noninvasive imaging techniques to understand cancer. She also directs the In Vivo Cellular and Molecular Imaging Center (ICMIC). Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) they can understand important characteristics of peptide-treated tumors such as blood vessel permeability and volume.
Koskimaki traveled many academic paths before setting his sights on science. He began college as a piano performance major at the University of Utah, but was drawn to the technical aspects of biomedical engineering. In addition, he double majored in economics seeking to obtain a broad perspective. Koskimaki explains, “science funding and research are inherently linked to the larger economic landscape, and knowledge of economics is a great asset to any research career.“ During his biomedical engineering studies, he researched the mechanical properties of the glycocalyx, the outer coating of the cell membrane. His positive experiences, along with his interest in developing novel therapeutics lead him to pursue a Ph.D. in the field.
Always interested in trends and politics, Koskimaki could see himself pursuing careers in industry, academia, or writing. He recently began working as a science writing intern for the Institute for Nanobiotechnology and is looking for other opportunities to write. He also enjoys traveling and spent two weeks in India this fall.
*IGERT, which stands for Integrative Graduate Education and Research Traineeship, is a program funded by the National Science Foundation.
For more information on the INBT IGERT program, go to http://inbt.jhu.edu/igert.php
To learn more about the research of the Popel Lab, go to http://inbt.jhu.edu/facultyexpertise.php?id=personalresult&usr=179
For more information on ICMIC and Dr. Bhujwalla, go to http://icmic.rad.jhmi.edu/index.cfm?section=home
Story by Mary Spiro
Atomic Force Microscopy. Credit: Wirtz Lab/JHU
Absence of this biological ‘spark’ linked to cancer’s spread
In human relationships, a certain “spark” often governs whether we prefer one person more than another, and critical first impressions can occur within seconds. A team lead by Johns Hopkins researchers has found that cell-to-cell “friendships” operate in much the same way and that dysfunctional bonding is linked to the spread of cancer. [Read more...]