Microfluidics continues to find applications in many fields as researchers are realizing the benefits of scaling down to micron scales. This has implications in saving money from reagents and time from completing lengthy assays.
It also means that researchers are able to control experimental parameters at the micron scale more effectively, and use the fluidic flow to provide a dynamic environment. Applications for these devices include, but are not limited to, examples such as pathogen and cancer detection from blood, forming microparticles, studying antibiotic drug-resistant bacteria, understanding nanoparticle blood transport, and observation of the kinetics of chemical reactions.
One reason that microfluidics has become so widespread is that the process to develop and create these devices is relatively simple and inexpensive. The process, called photolithography, is based off of a technology developed for the semiconductor industry in developing small features for circuits.
Photolithography uses special polymers that are reactive to certain wavelengths of light to create the forms used to make the device. Then another polymer, typically polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), is poured into the casted photo-cured polymer mold to produce the microfluidic device. Many devices can be made from this mold and used in research and diagnostics for low-volume, high-throughput experiments.
John Hickey is a second year Biomedical Engineering PhD candidate in the Jon Schneck lab researching the use of different biomaterials for immunotherapies and microfluidics in identifying rare immune cells.
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