Podcast: Artificial blood vessel visualizes cancer cell journey

Researchers from Johns Hopkins Institute for NanoBioTechnology are visualizing many of the steps involved in how cancer cells break free from tumors and travel through the blood stream, potentially on their way to distant organs.  Using an artificial blood vessel developed in the laboratory of Peter Searson, INBT director and professor of materials science and engineering, scientists are looking more closely into the complex journey of the cancer cell.

Figure 1. 3D projection of a confocal z-stack shows human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) forming a functional vessel immunofluorescently stained for PECAM-1 (green) and nuclei (blue).

Figure 1. 3D projection of a confocal z-stack shows human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) forming a functional vessel immunofluorescently stained for PECAM-1 (green) and nuclei (blue). (Wong/Searson Lab)

INBT’s science writer, Mary Spiro, interviewed device developer Andrew Wong, a doctoral student Searson’s  lab, for the NanoByte Podcast. Wong is an INBT training grant student. Listen to NANOBYTE #101 at this link.

Wong describes the transparent device, which is made up of a cylindrical channel lined with human endothelial cells and housed within a gel made of collagen, the body’s structural protein that supports living tissues. A small clump of metastatic breast cancer cells is seeded in the gel near the vessel while a nutrient rich fluid was pumped through the channel to simulate blood flow. By adding fluorescent tags the breast cancer cells, the researchers were able to track the cells’ paths over multiple days under a microscope.

VIDEO: Watch how a cancer cell approaches the artificial blood vessel, balls up and then forces its way through the endothelial cells and into the streaming fluids within the channel of the device. (Video by Searson Lab)

The lab-made device allows researchers to visualize how “a single cancer cell degrades the matrix and creates a tunnel that allows it to travel to the vessel wall,” says Wong. “The cell then balls up, and after a few days, exerts a force that disrupts the endothelial cells. It is then swept away by the flow. “

Wong said his next goal will be to use the artificial blood vessel to investigate different cancer treatment strategies, such as chemotherapeutic drugs, to find ways to improve the targeting of drug-resistant tumors.

Results of their experiments with this device were published in the journal Cancer Research in September.

Andrew Wong (left) and Peter Searson. (Photo by Will Kirk/Homewood Photography)

Andrew Wong (left) and Peter Searson. (Photo by Will Kirk/Homewood Photography)

Check out this gallery of images from the Searson Lab. The captions are as follows:
Figure 1. 3D projection of a confocal z-stack shows human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) forming a functional vessel immunofluorescently stained for PECAM-1 (green) and nuclei (blue).
Figure 2. 3D projection of a confocal z-stack shows human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) forming a vessel with dual-labeled MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells on the periphery.
Figure 3. Phase-contrast and fluorescence overlays depicting a functional vessel comprised of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with dual-labeled MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells on the periphery (green in the nucleus, red in the cytoplasm).

 

 

INBT’s fall student symposium Nov. 7

An important opportunity in graduate school is to get peer and mentor feedback on results. One of the best ways to do that is to share what you have been working on with your colleagues at a symposium.

Student-organized symposia happen twice a year at INBT.

Student-organized symposia happen twice a year at INBT.

Come hear the latest updates from Johns Hopkins Institute for NanoBioTechnology’s research centers on Friday November 7 from 8 a.m. to 3 p.m. in the Great Hall at Levering on the Homewood campus! Students affiliated with laboratories from the Johns Hopkins Physical Sciences-Oncology Center, Johns Hopkins Center of Cancer Nanotechnology Excellence and INBT will present at this student-organized symposium. This event is free and open to the Johns Hopkins community. Refreshments provided

The keynote faculty speaker is Jordan Green, associate professor at Johns Hopkins Department of Biomedical Engineering. Breakfast, networking and introductions begin at 9 a.m.

Student speakers and topics include:
**Kristen Kozielski -Bioreducible nanoparticles for efficient and environmentally triggered siRNA delivery to primary human glioblastoma cells. Jordan Green Lab. 9:30-9:45 a.m.

**Angela Jimenez – Spatio-temporal characterization of tumor growth and invasion in three-dimensions (3D). Denis Wirtz Lab. 9:50-10:05 a.m.

**Charles Hu -X-ray visible stem cell delivery for cardia regenerative therapy via microfluidics-based microencapsulation. Hai-Quan Mao Lab. 10:10- 10:25 a.m.

**Max Bogorad – An engineered microvessel platform for quantitative imaging of drug permeability and absorption.  Peter Searson Lab. 10:30-10:45 a.m.

**Greg Wiedman – Peptide Mediated Methods of Nanoparticle Drug Delivery. Kalina Hristova Lab. 10:50 to 11:05 a.m.

**Jordan Green – Particle-based micro and nanotechnology to treat cancer 11:10 a.m. – 12:10 p.m.

Please RSVP on our Facebook event page here.

Summer interns for Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Lab sought

In 2013, a partnership with the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) and the Whiting School of Engineering launched APL/WSE Summer Program in Undergraduate Research or SPUR program. Whiting School of Engineering undergraduates who were selected for this prestigious program spent an incredible summer at APL working with mentors and conducting research as paid SPUR Scholars.

The application process for SPUR Scholars for the summer of 2015 is now open!

labwarestockThe program seeks highly qualified and motivated WSE undergraduates to be 2015 SPUR Scholars. To learn more, you are invited to attend the 2014 SPUR Poster and Information Session from 4 to 6 p.m. Tuesday, October 21 in the Glass Pavilion on the Johns Hopkins University Homewood campus. Refreshments will be provided. Please register for the event today at this link.

At the event, last summer’s SPUR Scholars will present a poster session about their research findings and representatives from APL and WSE will be there to answer students’ questions about the application and selection process. For more information on the SPUR program visit this link.

Have your PURA application reviewed

Are you planning to apply for the Johns Hopkins Provost Undergraduate Research Award (PURA)? Have yourpura Oct 1 application reviewed by experts — people who have previously won! Bring your applications to Shaffer 300 at  7p.m. on Oct. 1 and prepare for some constructive criticism. Improve your chances of winning funding for your great research idea! This meeting is open to any student applying for the PURA grant. This event hosted and sponsored by Johns Hopkins Institute for NanoBioTechnology.

The PURA program offers Johns Hopkins University students unique opportunities to conduct undergraduate research. Founded in 1993 on the belief that encouraging undergraduates to engage in research activity enhances the learning experience and helps to develop investigative skills, the PURA program is an important part of the university’s mission. PURA has given out an average of 46 awards per year (2 cycles/ year) since its inception in 1993. Guided by a full-time faculty sponsor, PURA research is designed by the student and can take many forms. From policy to nanotechnology; DNA engineering to musical presentation; short film to depression; the PURA program has enabled undergraduates to study all manner of subjects and have their results published in professional journals.

For more information on PURA visit this link.

pura Oct 1

Don’t believe everything (peer-reviewed) you read on the web

Recently, my attention was drawn to an article the same way I find many articles: through Facebook. Several of my many science-minded friends referenced a recent article from sciencemag.org entitled “Who’s Afraid of Peer Review?”, where a spoof paper with clearly bad controls was submitted to 304 open access journals and was accepted by 157. After reading a variety of comments with tones ranging from outrage to, “damn, I need to start writing some fake papers,” there was no way I wasn’t going to check out the article.

peer review image

Image used with permission from http://strange-matter.net/screen_res/nz060.jpg

Basically, some writers from Science generated a fake paper the claimed a chemical extracted from a lichen had shown anticancer properties. While the article claimed that there was a strong dose-dependent effect of the drug on the cancer cells, the effect barely varied over 5 orders of magnitude. The paper claimed that the chemical was dissolved in large amounts of ethanol before being added to cells, but the control cells were given no ethanol, meaning that likely what was killing the cells was not in fact the chemical, but the ethanol itself. Testing controls with the same solvent as the other conditions is standard, especially when large amounts of the solvent itself can have toxic effects. The spoof paper also went on to make large claims about how the molecule tested has potential as an anticancer drug.

It would seem likely, given the inherent flaws in the article, that the academics reviewing this paper would immediately raise a red flag about its content. However, the majority of the journals accepted the paper, including 45% of the journals in the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), which is meant to identify the credible open access journals. Many of the journals that offered the authors any feedback ignored the glaring scientific mistakes and simply made suggestions for changes in formatting.

As a grad student, I read peer-reviewed papers nearly every day. And while I’ve always known that I should be critical of everything I read, I was still shocked that this spoof article with such glaringly bad science was accepted by so many publishers. While I’m not as tempted to submit my own fake articles as some of my Facebook friends, this sting operation performed by the writers at Science is making me much more skeptical of papers I find on the web.

Amanda Levy is a doctoral student in the materials science and engineering laboratory of Peter Searson, director of INBT.

 

Fall 2014 PS-OC newsletter online

The most recent newsletter from Johns Hopkins Physical Sciences-Oncology Center (PS-OC) is now online for your reading pleasure. One of the best features of this little update is the extensive list of recently published papers with brief summaries of each. It is a full rundown of what this center has been working on since April 2014.

Screen Shot 2014-09-23 at 12.55.23 PMThe Johns Hopkins Physical Sciences-Oncology Center is one of several NCI-funded PS-OC’s launched to better understand and control cancer through initiatives that enable the convergence of the physical sciences with cancer biology.

Click on this link to download your very own pdf copy.

For more information about the Johns Hopkins PS-OC go to http://psoc.inbt.jhu.edu/

Jordan Green named to PopSci’s Brilliant Ten

Jordan Green, Johns Hopkins University associate professor of biomedical engineering and executive committee member for the Johns Hopkins Institute for NanoBioTechnology, was named one of Popular Science magazine’s Brilliant Ten. The magazine recognized “inspired young scientists and engineers … whose ideas will transform the future.”

Jordan Green (Photo by Marty Katz)

Jordan Green (Photo by Marty Katz)

Green’s work focuses on using nanoscale particles made in the shape of footballs that can train the body’s own immune system to tackle cancer cells. Turns out, particles with the elongated ovoid shape have a slightly larger surface area, which gives them an edge over spherical particles. The football-shaped particles did a better job of triggering the immune system to attack the cancer cells.

Green collaborated with Jonathan Schneck, M.D., Ph.D., professor of pathology, medicine and oncology at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. Both are affiliated faculty members of Johns Hopkins Institute for  NanoBioTechnology. Their work was published in the journal Biomaterials on Oct 5, 2013.

Read more about their research here.

Congratulations to Dr. Green for the recognition of your interesting and promising work!

Watch a video where Green explains his work in simple terms using toys.

Giddens Inaugural Professorial Lecture Series features all INBT faculty

In 1993, the Whiting School of Engineering at Johns Hopkins University started a tradition to honor faculty members who had been newly promoted to full professors through a special lecture series named for the school’s fifth dean. The Don P. Giddens Inaugural Professorial Lecture Series this fall features three faculty affiliated with the Johns Hopkins Institute for NanoBioTechnology. Each will take place in different auditoriums on the Homewood campus and begin at 3 p.m. They are free and open to the Hopkins community, but seating in each location is limited. Check it out.

Monday Sept. 15, Mason Hall, 3-5 p.m.Fall IPL lecture poster

David Gracias, Russell Croft Faculty Scholar, professor of chemical and biomolecular engineering

Big Ideas in a Small World

Nine orders of magnitude separate humans from the nanometer length scale – much of what is hidden from the naked eye. Professor Gracias discusses how engineering three-dimensional devices at these tiny length scales promises revolutionary advances in optics, electronics and medicine.

Tuesday, Oct. 14, Gilman 50, 3-5 p.m.

Hai-Quan Mao, professor of materials science and engineering

Designer Materials for Tissue and Therapeutic Engineering

New materials with tailored structural and functional characteristics can advance the ways medical treatments are delivered to combat diseases and repair damaged tissue. Professor Mao chronicles several case studies about recent innovations in the development of polymeric nanomaterials to enhance stem cell expansion and differentiations and to improve gene medicine delivery.

Thursday, November 6, Hodson Hall 210, 3-5 p.m.

Tza-Huei “Jeff” Wang, professor of mechanical engineering

Discerning Rare Disease Biomarkers by Micro- and Nanotechnologies

Microfluidics, nanoparticles and single molecule spectroscopy hold great promise for advancing the molecular analysis of diseases. Professor Wang will explicate how these highly sensitive tools can enhance the detection of genetic and epigenetic markers for cancer, as well as assist in diagnosing infectious diseases more swiftly and accurately.

 

 

 

Posters solicited for Regenerative Medicine and Tissue Engineering Symposium

labwarestockPosters are now being accepted for the Regenerative Medicine and Tissue Engineering Symposium, co-organized by the Institute for Cell Engineering and Translational Tissue Engineering Center. The symposiumwill be held  from 8:30 to 5 p.m. October 7, 2014 in the Mountcastle Auditorium, Pre-Clinical Teaching Building. Our keynote speakers are Dr. Irv Weismann from Stanford University and Dr. Arnold Caplan from Case Western Reserve University. Other speakers to be announced.

Students, postdoctoral fellows and faculties are encouraged to attend this one day symposium and present their work related to regenerative medicine during the lunchtime poster session. Please submit a short poster abstract to Eleni Georgantonis at egeorga1@jhmi.edu by September. 15.  Awards for the best posters from students and postdocs will be presented at the end of the day.

The event is co-hosted by INBT affiliated faculty Jennifer Elisseeff and Guo-li Ming.

Receptors, Synapses and Memory

Johns Hopkins University’s “Brain Night” is a monthly event sponsored by the Brain Science Institute and includes supper and a scientific program aimed at bringing together students and senior investigators. Faculty, students and staff interested in the brain sciences are invited to attend. The program is designed to promote interactions between faculty and students across the University and to increase links between basic and clinical neuroscience researchers.

Brain_Night_Sept_2014_HuganirThis month’s Brain Night will feature: Richard L. Huganir, Ph.D. on “Receptors, Synapses and Memory” on Wednesday, September 10, 2014, with a 5:00pm reception and  5:30pm lecture in the Mountcastle Auditorium, PCTB (PreClinical Teaching Building) 725 N. Wolfe Street, East Baltimore Campus.

Huganir is affiliated with The Johns Hopkins Blood-Brain Barrier working group launched by Peter Searson, director of Johns Hopkins Institute for NanoBioTechnology. Huganir is also Professor and Director of the Solomon H. Snyder Department of Neuroscience, as well as an Investigator with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute.

Please RSVP to Barbara Smith via email bsmith13@jhmi.edu or 410-955-4504.

http://www.brainscienceinstitute.org/index.php/news/brain_night/